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Convict Ship Archduke Charles 1813

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Convict Ship Archduke Charles 1813


Embarked:147 men; 54 women
Voyage: 277 days
Deaths 2
Surgeon's Journal - No
Previous vessel: Minstrel arrived 25 October 1812
Next vessel: Fortune arrived 11 June 1813
Master J. P Jeffreys
Surgeon John Pawson
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Passengers and convicts of the Archduke Charles identified in the Hunter Valley


The Archduke Charles was built at Shields in 1809 and owned by H. Moore. She was two decked and was sheathed in copper in 1810. She carried 4 x 6 pound guns and 12 x 12 pound carronade. [3]

The Archduke Charles left Portsmouth on 28th March 1812 bound for Cork where 147 male and 54 female convicts would be embarked. The Archduke Charles was one of the last convict ships to carry both male and female prisoners.


Departure

The Archduke Charles departed Cork on 15 May 1812.


Passengers and Military Guard

Passengers included Lieutenant John Burbridge and Lieutenant Philip Connor of the 1st Battalion, 73rd regiment, with a detachment of thirty non-commissioned officers and privates to join the Battalion.

Lieutenant Burbridge was intending to resign his commission and return to England on urgent private business as early as November 1813, however did not depart until May 1814. He was referred to in correspondence as that unfortunate young man [2].

Detachments of the 73rd arrived on the Dromedary, Indefatigable, Guildford, Hindostan, Indian, Archduke Charles, Ann, Fortune 1813, Providence 1811 and Admiral Gambier 1811.


Rio de Janeiro

They called at Rio de Janeiro and departed from there in company with the Minstrel and Indefatigable on 11th August 1812.


Cape of Good Hope

They were delayed soon leaving Rio because of the loss of the rudder and put into port at the Cape of Good Hope on 25th of September to make repairs. They remained at the Cape until the 19th December 1812 and while there the convicts made complaints of ill treatment against Captain Jeffrey to Governor Sir John Craddock. A board of Enquiry was established to investigate the conduct of Captain Jeffrey and a copy of the proceedings was forwarded to Governor Macquarie.


Port Jackson

The Archduke Charles arrived in Port Jackson on 16 February 1813 - a voyage of over nine months.


Convict Muster and Investigation

After arrival in Port Jackson further complaints were preferred by some of the convicts against Captain Jeffreys prompting Governor Macquarie to order Secretary Mr. Campbell and Acting Commissary Willliam Broughton to investigate the claims at the muster of convicts previous to disembarkation. It was found that the charges were either ill founded or frivolous, and that any severity the convicts may have suffered were the natural consequence of the mutinous disposition which they appear to have possessed........ The complaint of short rations is altogether confined to the period between their parting convoy and their arrival at the Cape of Good Hope, they all agree in admitting that from the Cape to this country they were fully supplied with provisions.

During the investigation by Messrs. Broughton and Campbell it was revealed that without a single exception the women amounting to fifty-four in number spoke in high terms of gratitude for the kindness and humanity with which they had been treated. They all spoke of the surgeon Mr. Pawson as a man of good and kind feelings though at the same time several of them complained that their slops which they had entrusted to his care were plundered however none of them attached any blame to him for that circumstance. [1]

Two prisoners died on the passage; namely, Arthur Culmady, aged 67, from the infirmities of age ; and John Lenna, a young man, from extreme debility. All the others arrived in apparent good health.

Convict indents included very little information - name, place of conviction, year of conviction, sentence and a few details about Tickets of Leave and Pardons.


Convict Assignment

By order of Governor Macquarie, the male prisoners were mostly assigned to settlers who had no government servants and who by their industry were deserving of the indulgence. Four prisoners were sent to work at the lumbar yard; two were assigned to Rev. Marsden; fifteen were sent to the Parramatta district and twenty to Windsor for distribution.

The female prisoners were forwarded to the Factory at Parramatta [1]. Benjamin Barrow was overseer of the Factory at this time and Captain Haddon Smith/ Smyth of the 73rd regt., had succeeded Lieutenant Durie as Commandant at Parramatta.....

In correspondence dated 19th February 1813 Captain Smyth was informed by the Colonial Secretary that..... Twenty five female convicts are sent by Boat to Parramatta to be employed in the Factory there. Should any respectable persons wish to obtain servants from among these women it is His Excellency the Governor's desire that you should accommodate them, on the usual terms 'Off the Stores' taking proper security for their good treatment.

Below is a list of the twenty five women sent to Parramatta on 19th February:

Catherine Brown
Mary Hyde
Mary Collins
Margaret Leary
Catherine Cammell
Mary Lysett
Mary Charlton
Eleanor Matthews
Elizabeth Dogherty
Jane McClernan
Mary Doyle
Mary Maguire
Mary Ferns
Magaret McDonald
Catherine Fearns
Jane O'Brien
Catherine Flynn
Mary Phillips
Catherine Fisher
Mary Roney
Ann Hagan
Jane Shea
Leititia Graham
Maria Stringer
Ann Hickey


Departure from Port Jackson

The Archduke Charles was hired by the East India Company to bring tea from China on the return of this voyage. She departed Port Jackson bound for China on 17th September 1813. On board were eight stowaways - H. Barnes, John Brennan, Luke Culverwell, John Connor, John Mahon, Nicholas Kearns and Catherine Flynn and Daniel Thurston. They were apprehended on the vessel's arrived in China and were returned to Australia on the Frederick in April 1815.


Fate of the Archduke Charles

The Archduke Charles was wrecked near Green Island, River St. Lawrence in June 1816 on the passage from Quebec to Halifax - Gentleman's Magazine


Notes and Links


1). Walter Hall - In 1813 Rev Marsden formed the New South Wales Society for Affording Protection to the Natives of the South Sea Islands and Promoting their Civilisation, and on 28 November 1814 set out with a party in the brig Active, which he had bought for 1400 pounds, to maintain the Maoris'; contact with civilization. (ADB Online)

Others joining the expedition included Thomas Hansen, free settler, master; Alexander Ross, came free in the Surry, John Hunter, free by birth in NSW; Thomas Hamilton , free by servitude; William Campbell, free by certificate; Warrakee a New Zealander, Tommy, ditto; Dicka-hee, Otaheitan, Punnee, Bolabolan. Passengers William Hall, missionary, Mrs. Dinah Hall, wife of William Hall, William Hall aged 3; Thomas Kendall, missionary, Mrs. Jane Kendall; Thomas Henry and William Kendall children of the above, John King, missionary; Mrs. Hannah King; Philip King aged 15 months; Thomas Hensen junior, son to the master, Mrs. Hannah Hansen wife of the Master; John Liddiard Nicholas, free settlers and eight New Zealanders and Chiefs.

The following convicts also joined the expedition - Walter Hall arrived as a prisoner on the Archduke Charles. In 1814 he was given special permission to join a missionary expedition to New Zealand on the condition of Rev. Samuel Marsden giving security that Hall would return to New South Wales within 3 years. Patrick/Henry Shaffery who arrived on the Sugar Cane and Richard Stockwell who arrived on the Earl Spencer were permitted to join the expedition likewise. Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand: Performed in the Years 1814 ...2 By John Liddiard Nicholas

2). Sarah Nixon was tried at the Armagh Assizes on Wednesday 15th August 1810. She and Henry McKinstry were convicted of felony and sentenced to be transported for seven years. They were the only prisoners that day to be sentenced to transportation. (Freeman' Journal, 24th August 1810)

3). Mary Rooney was tried for stealing two Quarts of Whiskey, the property of John Whelan and Jonas Hanway, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 7 years transportation. Mary Stafford, for the same offence, having pleaded not guilty, a Clerk in the House of Messrs Whelan and Hanaway, proved that having missed a quantity of Wine and Spirits, the 2 servant maids were suspected, and he and another were on the watch; and at three o'clock in the morning saw them lift up a trap door in the shop, when Mary Rooney went and drew two Quarts of Whiskey from a cask, while the prisoner at the bar held the candle for her. They were connected with men who receive the Wine and Sprits they stole, and he believed they often brought them into the House. The Jury returned a verdict of guilty.....His Lordship then passed sentence on the prisoner of transportation for seven years.

4). Henry Murray, stood indicted for stealing two suits of clothes and three dessert spoons, the goods of Alderman McKenna. Alderman stated, that he had hired the prisoner on the 18th September last as Coachman; that he had got a suit of clothes which had been worn by his predecessor; that soon after he had got a new suit of livery; that on the 10th October having heard a character of the prisoner not redounding much to his credit, he told him he should be obliged to part with him; prisoner, however saved him that trouble by taking himself off and with him the articles laid in the indictment. Prisoner said in his defence, that he had no other intention but to honesty return them when convenient, and that prosecutor was not the first Alderman he lived with, as he had served Alderman Bloxham, who, he was very sorry was not there, to give him an excellent charged. He was found guilty and sentenced to transportation for seven years. (Freeman's Journal 18 January 1812)

5). Recorder's Court Saturday November 2 - Charles Leary, for robbing his master Mr. Michael Martin of cash to a considerable amount, part only of which was identified, together with a pair of remarkable sleeve buttons, was found guilty, and sentenced to seven years transportation - Freeman's Journal 4 November 1811

6). Thomas Kelly, who had been convicted of cow stealing but recommended to mercy by the Grand Jury, was sentenced to transportation for life. James Brewster, for having a forged note in his possession, knowing it to be forged, was sentenced to transportation for fourteen years. - Freeman's Journal 2 November 1810

7). Ireland Marriages 1771 to 1812

8). Kerry Lyne was employed as a Constable at Patterson's Plains and Maitland

9). Catherine Flynn married John Tucker. She was drowned in the Hunter River in 1815. Find out more here.

10). John Brick was sent to the limeburners gang at Newcastle in 1814.


PUBLIC NOTICE. - The Persons under named, being Convicts who absconded from Newcastle, all Persons are hereby cautioned against harbouring, employing, encouraging, or in anywise maintaining any or either of the said Persons on Pain of Prosecution ; Francis Purcelle, and Walter Preston, by the Guildford ; John Bricks, by the Archduke Charles ; Isaac Walker, by the 1st Gambier ; John Lee, by the 2d Gambier ; and Thomas Desmond, by the Atlas ; all of whom absented themselves from the limeburners gang, on the 25th of November ultimo. All Constables and others are hereby required to do their utmost Endeavour in apprehending or causing to be apprehended all or any of the said Fugitives. W. Hutchinson, Principal Superintendant. - [7]

They were all captured, punished with fifty lashes and returned to the settlement


11). Patrick Byrne was granted an absolute pardon for his part in John Oxley's expedition to the Lachlan River in 1818

12). Convict John Burke was later employed as overseer by Leslie Duguid at Luskintyre. He became the owner of considerable land and when he died in 1839 his son sub-divided the land. Bourke Street Maitland is named after John Burke.

13). Convicts and Passengers of the Archduke Charles identified in the Hunter Valley

Name Notes
Ballance, John Tried City of Dublin in 1812. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement on the Kangaroo in February 1816. In 1821 - 1823 employed by Thomas Street, master of the Sinbad in the procurement of cedar at Port Stephens
Brick, John Alias Briggs. Tried Limerick city in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in punishment for a colonial crime in August 1813. Sent to work at the lime burners. Absconded from there in November 1814 with bushranger Thomas Desmond however was apprehended soon afterwards. In January 1815 punished with 50 lashes with four other convicts who had also absconded - John Lee, Isaac Walker, Walter Preston and Francisco Parcello. Admitted to the General Hospital in Sydney in February 1825
Burke, John Tried Co. Limerick in 1811. Sentenced to transportation for life. On a list of prisoners at Bathurst recommended for a mitigation of sentence on 1 July 1818 having joined John Oxley's expedition to the Lachlan in June 1817. In 1828 resided near Maitland with wife Mary and two children. Employed as overseer by Leslie Duguid
Burke, John Tried in Co. Monaghan in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Petitioned for a grant of land in August 1824...Petitioner arrived in the colony in 1813 under sentence of transportation for seven years which sentence petitioner having faithfuly fulfilled obtained a Certificate on 19 October 1819 to that effect. Petitioner has a wife and seven children to support which he rents a farm in the district of Appin and is possessed of 2 horses and 8 head of horned cattle. In 1828 listed as a settler residing at Appin with wife Sarah and son John junior
Byrne, John Tried City of Dublin in 1812. Sentenced to 7 years transportation
Byrne, John Tried Co. Wicklow in 1812. Sentenced to transportation for life
Cavenagh, Michael Tried Co. Kilkenny in 1811. Sentenced to 14 years transportation. Sawyer, on list of prisoners to be sent to Newcastle in June 1819. Transferred to Port Macquarie per Lady Nelson in December 1823
Caldwell, Thomas Alias Colville. Tried co. Fermanagh in 1810. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. In August 1821, employed as a stockman at Newcastle penal settlement, sentenced to 25 lashes for neglect of the Government herd. Assigned to Alexander Livingstone in June 1824. In June 1824 found not guilty in the murder of John Bentley near Newcastle. In 1828 he was at Moreton Bay
Fearns, Catherine Alias Ferris. Tried Dublin City in 1809. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to the Female Factory at Parramatta on arrival in the colony. Married Thomas Duncombe in August 1813. Sent to Newcastle in April 1814. Married Richard Boots, sexton of Newcastle 15 September 1823. In 1828 age 60, employed as a house servant to John Tucker at Paterson Plains. Her husband Richard Boots age 65 employed as a labourer on the same farm. Died at Maitland in April 1832. Richard Boots died in October 1835 at Pattersons Plains
Ferns, Mary Tried in Dublin City in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Forwarded to the Female Factory at Parramatta on arrival in the colony. Sent to Newcastle in November 1813. In a poor state of health in May 1815 and sent to the General Hospital in Sydney from Newcastle
Fisher, Catherine Tried in Dublin City in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to the Female Factory at Parramatta on arrival. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in April 1813. Admitted to Sydney Gaol in Janaury 1823 as a rogue, vagabond and prostitute. Sentenced to 6 months in the Female Factory
Flynn, Catherine Alias Dart. Tried in Dublin City in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Escaped from the colony on the Archduke Charles when it departed Port Jackson in September 1813. Apprehended when the vessel reached China and returned to the colony on the Frederick in 1815. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in May 1815 and married John Tuckerin June or July 1815. Drowned in the Hunter River in July 1815
Gallagher, Thomas Alias Gallahan. Tried Co. Clare in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. On list of prisoners to be sent to Newcastle on the Kangaroo in February 1816
Galvin, Cornelius Tried at Cork in 1812. Sentenced to transportation for life. On list of prisoners to be sent to Newcastle in November 1819. In September 1821 employed as a stonemason. In 1833 his Ticket of Leave was cancelled, having been erroneously granted
Gill, Matthew Tried Co. Galway in 1811. Sentenced to transportation for life. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in August 1820 in the name of Michael Gill. In 1828 at King George Sound
Givnon, Thomas Alias Givney. Thomas Givnon senior, Thomas Givnon junior and John Givnon all tried at Co. Galway in 1811. Sentenced to transportation for life.
Hogan, John Tried in Limerick Co. in 1812. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. In 1828 age 40, assigned to Leslie Duguid. In 1832 resided at Dalwood. Married Mary Mahoney at Maitland in September 1832
Hudson, William Tried in City Kilkenny in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in October 1817 In 1825, free by servitude and employed by William Evans near Newcastle. In 1828 aged 70 employed as a house servant by William Carter at Piercefield
Kynan, Catherine Probably Catherine Keenan who was convicted in Dublin City in 1812 and sentenced to 7 years transportation. Granted permission to marry James Carmichael in Sydney in January 1817. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in September 1817. In January 1818 applied to leave Newcastle because her possessions in Sydney were in the hands of unreliable people. Her sentence was mitigated by Governor Macquarie the following month
Larkin, Michael Tried Co. Mayo in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. At Newcastle in 1824
Lynch, John Tried Co. Kerry in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. In 1828, aged 38, free by servitude, employed as farmer to Thomas Pendergrass at Luskintyre. Resided with wife Sarah and children Bridget 7, Catherine 5, Mary 2, and Margaret 4 months.
Lynch, William Tried City of Dublin in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sentenced to four years transportation for receiving goods stolen from the house of James Underwood. On list of prisoners transported to Newcastle in August 1821. Sent to Sydney Gaol for stealing in a dwelling house having been convicted at the criminal court on 18 November 1831. Sentenced to 12 months in an irong gang
Lyons, Kerry Alias Lynes. Tried Co. Wexford in 1810. Sentenced to 14 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in July 1813, October 1816 and June 1819. Married Catherine Sheridan at Newcastle in July 1823. Catherine Sheridan had arrived on the Francis and Eliza in 1815 and became a successful farmer at the Hunter River by 1823. In 1825 Kerry Lyne employed as District constable at Pattersons Plains and Wallis Plains. In 1828 aged 52, employed as a constable by Alexander McLeod
Manning, Mary Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in 1814
Mannix, Mary Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in 1816
McGwire, Mary Also McGuire. Tried Dublin City in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlment in October 1813. Returned to Sydney in March 1815. Sent to Newcastle in January 1821. In 1828 age 31, resident at the Female Factory at Parramatta
McMahon, Cornelius Tried Co. Clare in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in 1814. In 1828 age 37, resided with his wife Ann at Petersham where he was employed as a watchman
Morris, James Tried Co. Leitrim in 1812. Sentenced to transportation for life. In 1828 age 35 employed as a carpenter by Alexander McLeod at Luskintyre. Died suddnely on 11 February 1838 in Port Macquarie
Mullalla, Owen Tried City of Dublin 1812. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in 1817
Mullen, Catherine Or McMullen. Tried Co. Westmeath in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in 1815
O'Brien, John Tried Co. Down in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in 1817
Phillips, Mary Tried Dublin City in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Forwarded to the Female Factory at Parramatta on arrival in the colony. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in September 1813. Granted permission to proceed to Sydney for 7 days on private business in April 1815
Quinan, Michael Alias Maurice Quinland. Tried at Cork in 1812. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. In 1828 aged 86, a pensioner in the Benevolent Asylum
Rourke, Thomas Tried City of Kilkenny in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in 1815. Punished with 25 lashes for theft in January 1816. Punished with 10 lashes for theft in September 1818. In March 1820 the Governor was informed that several prisoners about to be sent to Newcastle were of a very notorious character and had openly stated their unconcern at being sent to Newcastle because they could easily escape from there. Thomas Rourke was mentioned in particular. In April 1820 he was one of eleven men who escaped while they were awaiting transportation to Newcastle. He was punished with 75 lashes at Newcastle for striking, resisting and threatneing to murder the jailer in 1822. Sent to Port Macquarie from Newcastle in February 1823. In 1828 at Norfolk Island under sentence of 14 years transportation
Sharkey (Vaux), Frances Tried in Dublin City in 1810. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in September 1815. Married James Hardy Vaux at Newcastle on 3 August 1818. In July 1824 under the name Fanny Vaux, sentenced to the Female Factory at Parramatta for 28 days for drunk and abandoned conduct. In September 1824 Sent to the Factory for 3 months for drunk, riotous and disorderly conuct. Sent to the General Hospital in Sydney in March 1825
Shea, Jane Tried City of Cork in 1812. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in 1813 and 1816
Stapleton, Patrick Tried at Kilkenny City in 1811. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. In 1818 sold a number of sheep that were found to be stolen. He was sentenced to 7 years transportation to Newcastle. Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in October 1818. In April 1824 assigned to Richard Binder and sentenced to receive 50 lashes for leaving his master 's farm without permission and for repeated insolence and neglect of duty

References

[1] Colonial Secretary's Letters. Main series of letters received, 1788-1825. SReel 6043; 4/1728 pp.89-90. State Records Authority of New South Wales.

[2] New South Wales Government. Main series of letters received, 1788-1825. Series 897, Reels 6041-6064, 6071-6072. Item 4/3493, p. 150. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.

[3] Lloyds Register.


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