Free Settler or Felon

Newcastle in 1870

People and Places




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Some fascinating details of Newcastle life, particularly in the vicinity the railway and city streets, are mentioned by 'Perambulator' in the sketch below.

Sketch

A writer in Tuesday's Empire, signing himself 'Perambulator,' sketches Newcastle as follows, under the heading 'Towns and Villages of New South Wales' :

A single glance is sufficient to convince the most superficial observer, that the port of Newcastle is already an important place, and must become more so for many years to come. The numerous ships in the harbour, the trucks - empty and full - on the many branches of the spring railway terminus. The number of hotels and stores belonging to busy tradesmen, the names of its merchants on their offices, and the appearance of its private dwellings, as you pan your binocular from the lowest to the highest point of the city (for it has its Bishop, exhibits a well to-do character of its inhabitants.

Although several hotels are named as highly respectable, including Olliffe's and Williams', I selected the Great Northern, a large, lofty, and well aired, but certainly not the best arranged family hotel in the colony. I found an early breakfast was on the table every morning for those who were going up the country by the 7 a.m. train, and, having had a good bath, I joined the early breakfast, which was really a good spread.

The steamers from Sydney generally arrive - according to the weather and their speed - at from 5-30 to 6-30 a.m., and the traveller will find plenty of interest if he walks the deck, say, half-an-hour before the vessel reaches Nobby's. The lighthouse is to be seen about eighteen miles off ; but, as she approaches Nobby's, a very pretty marine residence is seen, owned by the manager of the A. A. Company, which, for position and design, reflects great credit upon the judgment and taste of Mr. Merewether. Notwithstanding the very large outlay up on breakwaters and improvements in the harbour with the view to deepen the latter and keep the entrance clear, I am informed it will take all the skill and spare cash the colony can afford to make this port what she must become - a really first class one.

Even at the early hour of 5.30 a.m., signs of activity are to be seen. Fisher men on the wharf vending the produce of their early industry - whiting, flatheads, bream, and other kinds, including shell fish, waiting for buyers, besides large baskets of such ready to go by the early trains to the inland towns - a luxury only to be obtained by the aid of the railway. The grimy sons of toil are flitting about, some to get ready their gear connected with the coal shoots, others to the iron horses and take their day's provider (coal) on the tender. Agents, foremen, clerks, and a few active tradesmen are to be met, all making for their various posts of duty until the well-known six o'clock bell belches forth its summons to labour ; then commences, a chorus of music that only a drone could object to. Listen to the half-dozen or more locomotives sending their shrill whistles to warn the pointmen, the signal men, and the careless pedestrian to keep their eyes open, or the consequence may be fatal. There they go, shunting from one line to another, dragging or propelling long trains of loaded waggons near the wharves, ready to be lifted and tilted by those powerful cranes into the fine colliers and other vessels lying alongside, or they are going off to the various mines with nearly an eighth of a mile of empty waggons to each locomotive. The reader may form some idea of the work on the lines from the fact that nearly sixty thousand tons of coal pass over these rails per month ; besides which there are the heavy trains for goods, and the passenger traffic supplying the up-country trade, north and north-west, for many hundreds of miles ; the whole of which is under the care of that quiet multum in parvo sort of man. You see him moving about every where from his office to all points of the works with which he is connected, like the late 'Iron Duke,' whose head is as clear as a bell, and who, in his business relations, only knows one word, and that is duty ; I, of course, allude to the respected traffic-manager, Mr. Beeston.

The visitor to Newcastle will be struck with the large trade necessarily transacted, from the numerous and well-stocked stores, the busy appearance, from the number of respectably dressed-people, and strong and cleanly-looking miners and labourers moving to and fro, together with those adjuncts to easy-going life and modern civilisation, cabs and omnibuses ; nor are the latter the least wanted in Newcastle — the streets being so steep, although most of them are well made, and the roads just outside the municipality being so heavy with sand; but this 'large trade ' is obtained from the thousands of miners and others in the adjacent townships to which I will introduce the reader upon a future occasion. There is also a large shipping trade, which will be much larger, so soon as there is a good and cheap biscuit manufactory, and a few tradesmen willing to compete with similar men in Sydney and Melbourne.

Two local newspapers, vigilant to support the interests of the district, are, I believe, well supported, the eternal squabbles of the Corporation furnishing plenty of "local matter" of interest weekly to the residents. There are well-built banks, representing the Commercial, New South Wales, Australasia, and the Joint Stock. Several schools, well attended, in addition to that the best of all, the Public School, speak well for the parents of the rising generation. A lifeboat, well manned, and under a plucky captain, have opportunities, occasionally, of proving their great value, at times assisted by some heroic spirit belonging; to the tug-boats of the harbour.

That most necessary adjunct -the hospital - is there and well attended by the medical talent of the place, and well looked after by an active and zealous secretary. Several important operations have been performed, but which I need not particularise, the press having drawn attention to them at the time of the operation; perhaps I may be allowed to say that the architecture of the building is the least commendable part of it, and to suggest to our country friends, when they are about to erect public or other buildings, that they should study to improve their towns by having erections of beauty - the cost, generally, being so slightly in advance of the country. This is seen in the recent leasehold buildings erected and in course of erection in Newcastle. I am informed the Corporation have let some valuable ground, upon very short leases, resulting, of course, in a lot of paltry wooden erections, which an easterly gale may rock, if no further damage is done to them ; whereas, by granting longer leases, really valuable shops and warehouses might have been erected, at once ornaments to the city, and at the expiration of the leases the rents would be important items in lessening the rates, or in otherwise improving the district.

The Court-house is built upon, possibly, the most valuable part of the leading thorough-fare, and is rather a capacious building, but, I am afraid, none too large, if the number of people generally about the front, during 'court hours,' is any indication of the police court requirements. Adjoining are the police station and telegraph office, the latter a very busy department of that branch of the service, next to which is a vacant plot of valuable ground, where for years past the 'post-office' has been going to be built ! Now that a change in the 'representation' for the ensuing parliament has occurred, the objection to the building of a good post-office, where it should have been years since, has disappeared ! The new member should look to this matter sharp, and some hundred or more per year will be saved to the colony.

The town is lighted with gas, which, I am told, will be more generally used so soon as the young company can afford to reduce the price. The water supply is very primitive. There is a "reserve," but the old-fashioned cart is the medium of purveying it ! If a supply is obtainable near the reformatory, or about the level of that building, how easy would it be to supply the whole district, and at a profit to the Corporation. The drainage could be so easily secured now, either by passing the sewerage into the sea (not the harbour) or by collecting it for agricultural purposes ; every year, with increasing population, will make it more expensive to accomplish, and it must be done some day.

The Reformatory is in a much cleaner and better state than when I visited it some months since. It has a superintendent and a matron, who will do their duty ; but such an institution should be made self-supporting, and I am convinced the efforts of those I have mentioned will be directed to that end, if the public will support them, while the bad girls will be made better. I was pleased to find that classification to some extent had taken place. This institution is on the top of the cliffs, where a fine view can be obtained of the city, including its various places of worship, and the grand but turbulent Pacific.

Newcastle, from its situation at the mouth of the Hunter River, and easy access by rail as well as by sea, as well as the salubrity of its climate, has long been renowned for the number of invalids constantly visiting it, and especially by the up-country people. To the above cause may be added its possessing medical talent above the ordinary character, and especially in the person of Dr. Bowker, a gentlemen too well-known to require a recognition by me. It has often been said that his great success has been aided by the healthy and beautiful breezes constantly borne over the blue waters, and if such is correct it docs not detract from his great ability — it rather shows his judgment to be good in selecting such a spot for the recovery of his numerous patients ; for who, being well, could walk along those fine cliffs before breakfast, without feeling a determination to punish the first 'good spread ' he could sit down to ; and to the suffering invalid what a glorious change from the sick room to those glorious cliffs where, while improving his blood by oceans of good oxygen, he can see the wonders of creation in the boundless and ever-active ocean, fearful in its anger and wonderful in its motion, and surpassing all knowledge in its contents ; - all combine to make him 'whole; ' the free and pure air to heal his body, and his reflection upon the wonders of creation to lead him through nature up to nature's God.

And while the inland resident is recommended to visit this health-recovering spot, I must inform him what he will not find, but what should be speedily added, both for visitors as also for the busy residents of the district, viz., good roads over the cliffs, a good band of music for evening promenades, some good and safe baths, a good reading-room, with a library and the newspapers, and a nicely arranged garden, all of which would well repay the municipality, or any number of private individuals who have Enterprise sufficient to start such.

I cannot close this notice of this really valuable district without pointing to the great want of a Sailors' Home, where 'poor Jack' would be free from the rapacity of 'land sharks' of all kinds, say, upon the model of the late Mr. Green's, at Blackwall, where a good playground is attached, also a reading room, so that cricket or other muscular exercise can be alternated with an interview with the glorious spirits of the dead, such as Nelson, Blake, and others, as well as others who may lead jack's bold and noble spirit to look at the time when Many a rude prayer may hallow the wave that closes above the sailor's grave I may soon have the pleasure of taking your readers round some pretty spots near the above important port, but cannot close this brief notice of Newcastle before I refer them to R. C. Knaggs and Co.'s Nautical almanac for this year, which contains a map of the harbour, besides valuable statistics of the district, much too important to condense in a newspaper letter
. The Newcastle Chronicle (NSW : 1866 - 1876) Thu 6 Jan 1870 Page 4



Buildings and Businesses


Newcastle 1870

The above photograph 'View of Newcastle N.S.W., from Queen’s Wharf Looking S.W.' (H141643a) is made available by the State Library of Victoria) and is part of a series of photographs of Newcastle.

The American and Australasian Photographic Company was formed by Henry Beaufoy Merlin in June 1869. He was advertising to commence photographing 'every House, Shop, Store, Public Building and Private residence in Newcastle' in October 1870. His assistant was Charles Bayliss. These photographs may be his work. Click on the above photograph to view the image on the State Library of Victoria site, and enlarge. Some of the buildings can be identified on the enlarged image as follows:
Co-operative Colliery Office
A. A. Co. Coal Office
Waratah Coal Company
Lambton Colliery Office
Cloudy's Metropolitan Hotel
Great Northern Hotel
Advance Newcastle placard
Solomon Vindin and Co.,
Commerce House -Frederick Alcock, Draper and Outfitter
The Commercial Bank
The first Time Ball
Criterion Hotel
Broughton and Alcock
Bonded Stores of John Lane and Co, ship chandlers
Thomas Innes
At the top right of the photograph is St. Mary's Church
At the top left is the obelisk. The large house to the right of the obelisk is the house of Henry Rouse which was later acquired and modified by John Wood and is known today as Jesmond House. The vacant area between the Great Northern Hotel and the train was where the American Circus was held in August 1870


John Lane Bonded Store Newcastle
The image above of the Lane Bonded Stores is also from Album of photographs of Sydney and country New South Wales, ca. 1871 / American & Australasian Photographic Company - State Library of New South Wales
Unidentified building at Newcastle
The image above is also from Album of photographs of Sydney & country New South Wales, ca. 1870 / American and Australasian Photographic Company - State Library of New South Wales. The main building is unidentified in the Collection, however the building next to it is Commerce House owned by Frederick Alcock, mens outfitter, in Hunter Street, Newcastle. Part of Commerce House can also be seen in the view from Queens Wharf image above
Newcastle Christ Church Cemetery in 1870
The image above taken from Newcastle Christ Church cemetery looking towards the harbour is also from Album of photographs of Sydney & country New South Wales, ca. 1870 / American and Australasian Photographic Company - State Library of New South Wales

Notes By Month

January
40 vessels in port 8 January 1870. Annually three thousand ships.

New buildings being erected in Market Square in January

Large number of sharks sighted in the harbour and beach

Calls for building bathing facilities at Newcastle

Early Closing Association

Repairs to the Breakwater with stone from quarries at Waratah

Anniversary Day - 82nd anniversary of the foundation of the colony. Excursions, sports, brass bands

Newcastle Hospital 1869 report - A good carriage road made up to the main entrance which was continued round the south side of the building; a considerable quantity earth work levelled and the fencing in of the grounds proceeded with. The old unsightly hut demolished and the materials applied to the roadmaking. The front and part of the back verandahs paved with tiles. Gas laid on in the interior; A resident house surgeon and superintendent appointed - Mr. George H. Green, late house surgeon of the Maitland Hospital. Other medical staff included Drs. Harris, Codrington, Degner and Wells

The Nathan Juvenile Troupe performing at the Theatre Royal in Watt St.

Poor Box at the Court House held only 2d. for three weeks in a row

New steam ferryboat ordered from Melbourne to ply between Newcastle and Stockton

Almost four thousand children resided within the city boundaries. New public school called for

February
Petition to parliament for the road between Newcastle, Lambton and Wallsend to be macadamised

Coal staiths completed

Frederick Alcock's new Drapery Store built

Sinking of the trial shaft for the Lambton Coal Company at Stockton to a depth of 27 feet

Floating baths proposed

New smelter being built on land near New Lambton, the ground being the leasehold property of Messrs J. and A. Brown who owned the New Lambton coal works and who would supply the coal for the smelter

Newcastle Volunteer Artilliary consisted of one captain, one lieutenant, one quartermaster-sergeant, three sergeants, and forty six rank and file, in all fifty-two men

Travelling waxworks exhibition of Messrs Ghilom opened at John Broughton's former stores in Watt street

Newcastle Penny Bank meetings held in the Congregational Schoolroom, Brown street


March
Storm signals recently established on Flagstaff Hill

The cemetery wall in King street all but completed and was considered a very substantial structure. Steps from King street to the cemetery under construction

New Boot Factory established in Wolfe street (near the steps) by R. Bell, formerly of Singleton

Corner stone of the building of the Newcastle School of Arts formally laid on 18th March 1870

Hunter River in flood causing extensive damage

Gale force winds not experienced since the Cawarra wreck at Newcastle causing ships in the harbour to lose their moorings

A live platypus exhibited at the Steam packet Hotel in Hunter Street. Had been washed down the river in the floods and was said to be the first ever caught in the region

Newcastle to Stockton return ticket on the steam ferry Phoebe fare 6d.

Albert Lenthall's tender to repair the Leading Lights at Newcastle accepted


April
Laying of Foundation stone of the School of Arts ceremony. Building erected on land granted by government situated at the corner of Wolfe and Hunters Streets from a design of Benjamin Backhouse, architect

Fire in the Commercial Hotel

Ten year old son of Captain Robert Lorn Pattison rescued another boy from surf near Newcastle beach

Floating baths moored off the A. A. Company Wharf, Blane street and available for the public

Plans for a Protestant Hall for Newcastle where public societies or associations could hold their meetings

Young boy John Lewis died after being run over by a train on the Burwood line

After an interval of only five weeks the Hunter was in flood again at the end of April


May
Landscape artist H. E. Spong visiting Newcastle and produced a sketch of Newcastle harbour

Benefit held at the City Hall by members of the Newcastle Amateur Minstrels in honour of member W. J. Jamieson who was leaving the district

Steamers unable to proceed up river because of the floods

Part of a brick building being erected on corner of Market and Hunter streets by Robert Claxton and intended to be an Inn collapsed because of heavy rain and gale force winds

In celebration of the Queen's Birthday, the Volunteer Artillery and Rifle Corps held a parade on the ground near St. John's Church on 24 May

Queen's Birthday races at the Newcastle Race Course

Honeysuckle Point cemetery in a poor state

Fire in F. J. Shaw's stable at the back of Tattersall's Hotel attended by the Fire Brigade from Newcomen street and many citizens. Most horses were rescued; one horse died and carriages, an omnibus, saddles, hay, corn, cedar were destroyed, including property belonging to Dr. Degner


June
Tenders called for building new premises for the Bank of New South Wales

Inquest into the fire in F. J. Shaw's stables

Kangaroo hunt being organised to take place at Carrington where it was overrun with kangaroos and emus

Horses owned by the railway department eating produce kept at the Market Wharf at night

Death of publican Lewis Jones

Death of Archibald Rodgers following an accident in his Foundry two weeks before

A new church at Stockton almost completed. Designed by architect Mr. Backhouse

Meetings re the Incorporation of Onebygamba


July

Stone from a recently discovered quarry on the estate of the late Dr. Mitchell being used in building a new front to the Ship Inn

Newcastle draper Cowan, John convicted of forgery and sentenced to 5 years hard labour in Maitland gaol

Victoria Theatre - adjoined the Market Wharf Inn. Enlarged and re-opened in July 1870

Launch of the steam dredge Hunter at the Stockton Patent Slip

Stretch of beach between Shepherd's Hill and the Banana Garden (Redhead), 8 miles, strewn with more than 500 dead seagulls

14th Anniversary of the City Fire Brigade celebrated by a procession and dinner

Calls for a Time-ball to be erected at Newcastle

Monthly Gaelic service held in the Hunter street Presbyterian Church

Newcastle Jockey Club meetings held in the Ship Inn

August
Newcastle Borough Council meetings were held in the Court-house. Aldermen Bolton, Bowker, Laing, Hall, Brooks, Chapman, Hannell and Stokes.

Meeting held in the Yacht Club Hotel for the purpose of forming a bicycle club

Margaret Hughes Ellis aged 15 died at the Industrial Girl's Institution

Plans for building a new Customs House sent to Police Magistrate Helenus Scott by Colonial Architect James Barnet. (The building was not completed until 1877)

Grand Ball in aid of the School of Arts held at City Hall

Pidgeon match at Walmsley's Hotel

The Amercian Circus arrived by steamer and commenced their performances in the vacant land opposite the Great Northern Hotel

A new City Bank to be established at Newcastle




September

Eight Hour Movement meeting at the Shipwrights Arms, Market Square

Richard Hughes and William Henry Morris were found not guilty of setting fire to the stables belonging to Francis James Shaw

Three waterspouts were seen in a south easterly direction from Nobbys prior to the approach of a heavy squall, each about 100 feet

Whales observed six miles off Nobbys

Poor box contents 10 shillings

Phenomena similar to Aurora Australis seen off Newcastle

Tenders called for erection of a Market Building at Newcastle


October
Grand Bazaar to be held in the building recently occupied by Dr. Harris at the corner of Market square to aid Roman Catholic debts

Poor box empty

Annual meeting of the Newcastle Cricket Club held at Rouse's Hotel, Hunter Street

A. A. Company re-claiming certain land at Newcastle

Newcomen street near the Steam Packet Hotel in a disgraceful state

Of the 407,151 intended to be raised as a loan by the Government, 'The Loan Bill of 1870', only 59,600 was allowed for public works at Newcastle

William Sneddon of the Railway Hotel charged with perjury while being examined before the Chief Commissioner of Insolvent Estates

Anniversary services in connection with the Primitive Methodist Church in Brown street celebrated

The American and Australian Photographic Company commenced to Photograph every House, Shop, Store, Public Building and Private residence in Newcastle

Celebrated Australian explorer Mr. McKinlay, brother of Ellar McKallar McKinlay visited Newcastle on the steamship Omeo

Complaints made of hordes of children in Church street between Bolton and Watt streets who frequent the area because of the public pump situated there.


November
Inspection of the Hunter River Volunteers held in the presence of his Excellency the Governor, Earl Belmore and Lieut. Col. Richardson. Stores and ship decorated with bunting

Three black snakes in the vicinity of the race course discovered

Prince of Wales birthday observed in Newcastle with trains bringing hundreds of people and a race day held. Salutes fired from Flagstaff hill

Excavation work for foundation of new building erected by Major Bolton at the upper end of the London Tavern, Market Square caved in nearly burying a worker

Horse and buggy bolted opposite the Exchange Hotel, Hunter Street, galloped up Hunter Street as far as the Criterion Hotel, when it turned up Bolton street. Reaching the corner of Bolton and Church Streets, it turned into the latter thoroughfare at the church of England School and was finally secured at Christ Church Parsonage

Three mile race between A. E. Bird, Champion of the World and E. Ford, one mile Amateur Champion of Victoria, at the Newcastle cricket ground

Prize drama 'Ticket-of-Leave Man' playing at the Theatre Royal accompanied by the Alabama Minstrels who recently arrived from Honolulu


December

Dinner held for Newcastle-born William Hickey, Champion Sculler of Australia

A new time ball sufficiently large to be seen at a considerable distance, erected on the flagstaff, at the rear of the Telegraph Office, corner of Hunter and Watt street. The ball, made of wicker and painted black to make it more conspicuous was to drop precisely at one o'clock each day

Screw moorings fixed in the harbour for additional accommodation for shipping. At the southern end of the Queen's Wharf, a self-registering tide gauge was constructed

Meeting held at Mr. Olliffe's Criterion Hotel for the purpose of forming a Rowing Club

Floating Baths moored off the Market Wharf open to the public for the season. Charges moderate. The bathing apartments thoroughly protected by galvanised wire netting and a boat with an experienced hand is kept to convey bathers to and from the baths free of charge

Meeting of the Bullock Island Bridge Committee held at Colin Christie's hotel, Blane street

Brick coping of the Crystal Palace Hotel and of John Rhode's two shops on the corner of Hunter and Newcomen street collapsed

Gale force winds late December

Barque Rialto wrecked on the Oyster Bank

Foundation stone of the Borough Markets was laid by the Mayor William Sparke prior to the end of 1870



Newcastle Residents 1870
Adam, Thomas and Co Agents for the Purchase of property and land. Building surveyors. Corner of Watt and King
Alcock, Frederick Draper and Millinery store.
Alderson, Henry Baker. Blane street, Honeysuckle Point
Allan, David Tait Harbour Master. Lieutenant-Commander, Naval Brigade. Muster at the Old Stockade
Allender and Co., Drapery, Millinery, Clothing. Cheapside House, Hunter street
Ambrose, Charles Telegraph Officer
Anderson, George Manager of the Theatre Royal in Watt Street
Anderson, James Landlord of the Crystal Palace Hotel. Opened the Crystal Palace Gardens in Waratah 1877
Armstrong, C Leased the old established Photographic business of Mr. A. Smithers in Hunter Street, opposite the Steam Packet Hotel
Arnott, William Confectioner. Bread, and Biscuit maker. Hunter Street
Ash, Frederick Shop offering plumbing, glazing, decorating and galvanized corrugated iron. Candidate in the Municipal Elections. City Ward 1870
Ash, John Builder. Corner of King and Watt Street.
Asher, Alfred Saddler and Harness maker. A. A. Co., Bridge, Blane Street
Asher, Frank Saddler. Station street, Waratah
Asher, Samuel William Carpenter employed by Laing and Wylie
Backhouse, Joseph Architect and Building Surveyor. Ash's Buildings, King street
Bain, Rev. William In 1861 appointed to St. Philip's Church Newcastle, where he remained until failing health forced him to retire 37 years later
Ballarat Boarding House Proprietor Mrs. Hill. Newcomen street
Beeston, John Lievesley Railway Superintendent
Bingle, John Merchant, magistrate, ship owner
Bingle, John Rayden and Co Agents for the Australian Alliance Assurance company
Blair, C. L. Hon. Secretary Newcastle Cricket Club
Bohle, Henry Ballast-master
Bolton, Charles First sub-collector Newcastle Customs
Bonarius, John Charles Auctioneer. Market Wharf Auction Rooms
Bowker, Richard Ryther Steer Medical practitioner
Boyce, William Thomas Land Agent
Breckenridge, Robert Auctioneer, Timber Merchant and Commission Agent
Bridges, Thomas and Elizabeth Tobacco and Fancy Goods Warehouse. Hunter Street
Broadbent, Samuel Hawker
Broderick, Miss A Music teacher. King Street
Broderick, J. P Watchmaker and jeweller. Belmore House Hunter street
Brooks, Thomas Campaigning for position as Alderman for Honeysuckle ward
Broughton, John Grocer and provision merchant
Brown, Alexander Coal proprietor
Burrowes, John Town Clerk
Buxton, Richard Artist, collector
Buxton, Thomas Formerly sawyer and then shopkeeper at Newcastle. Scott street in 1870
Cain, James Boarding House in Watt street, facing Hunter Street
Cameron, Dugald Publican of the Star Inn in Blane street
Capper, Walter W Solicitor. Shaw's Buildings. Next to Mr. Grierson's Office, Scott Street
Cazneau Brothers Photographic artists. Hunter street
Chambers, Joseph Boarding establishment next door to The Caledonian Hotel, Watt Street
Chapman, Samuel City Wine Vaults, Scott street
Charlton, William Tailor. Hunter street. Next door to Rouse's Hotel. Insolvent estate August
Chippett, Robert Clothing store. Albert House Market Square, Hunter street
Christie, Colin Publican of the Royal Hotel, Blane Street
Claremont House School. Newcomen street
Clarke, William Undertaker
Cliff Cottage Accommodation offered by Mrs. Butler. Top of Watt street
Collins, Alexander Deputy Harbour master
Collins, Eliza Proprietor of the new Victoria Hotel in Blane street
Cowan, John Draper. Victoria House, formerly Glasgow House, corner of Newcomen and Hunter streets. Business run by his wife when he was jailed for forgery
Cohen, Samuel Proprietor of the Great Northern Hotel
Cohen, Solomon
Corbett, Thomas Barwick Sub-Collector of Customs. Died in February
Cordy, John Bailiff
Cox, George Henry Builder. Lake Macqurie road
Creer, Joseph Opened a furniture and crockery warehouse in Hunter street in front of the School of Arts in premises formerly occupied by T. Alcock
Criterion Hotel Corner of Hunter and Bolton Streets
Crystal Palace Newcomen street. Left hand side of the road in this photo
Cunningham, Benjamin Marriot
Dalby, Alfred Dalby's Boot Warehouse. Hunter Street
Dart, William Undertaker. Hon. Secretary Band of Hope
Deane, James and Co Steam Tug Proprietors and General Shipping Agents. Scott Street
Degner, Charles Henry Medical Practitioner
Dent, Stephen Henry Attorney, Solicitor. Watt Street, Newcastle
Dibbs, John Campbell Merchant
Dickson, Alexander General Grocer and Provision merchant. City Warehouse, Hunter Street
Downie, Matthew Advertisement - Poulterer, Fruiterer, Greengrocer. Newcomen Street next to the Steam Packet Hotel
Dulling, Thomas Secretary, Newcastle Hospital
Dwyer, Michael Undertaker
Edinburgh House Clothing store in Bolton street. Proprietor Charles Walker
Finch, Henry formerly a Publican at the Market Wharf Inn and afterwards involved in the Newcastle Co-operative Steam-tug Company
Fleming, Peter Butcher. The Model Shop, Hunter Street
Flood, Alexander Postmaster, Collector of Quit Rents and later Health Inspector. He also held an Auctioneer's license. Held the license for the Caledonia Hotel in 1850s
Forbes, A. F Baker. Moved from Bolton street premises to Watt street adjoining Mr. Whyte's Butchering Establishment
Foster, Steve Granted a license for the Galatea Hotel in Darby street
Fox, John R Shipping firm Campbell, Tighe and Fox. Butchers, Market Wharf
Fraser, James Shipwright, had resided at Newcastle twenty-one years
Gale, Thomas Yacht Club Hotel
Gibson, George Accountant. Custom house buildings in Scott street
Gingell, James Manufacturer of velocipede. Perkin street.
Goodrich and Neve Furniture and Upholstery Warehouse. Market Square. Two doors from the Pilot Office
Goodsir, John Ship builder. Scott street. Committee member Newcastle Protestant Hall Company
Grand Temperance Restaurant Corner of Hunter and Wolfe streets. Opened by William Arnott in April
Green, George Henry Dispenser, Newcastle Hospital
Greenway, William Howard Church Street. Son of Francis Greenway. Inventor of Greenway's Patent Sanitary System in 1880s
Grierson, Robert H General Merchant, Shipping and Commission Agent. Scott Street
Griffin, George Poet. Published 'Griffin's Newcastle Songster'
Griffiths, Simon Draper of Newcastle. Insolvent in December
Hannell, Clarence Hewson Hon. Secretary of Newcastle Annual Regatta
Hannell, James Mayor
Harbour View Terrace Accommodation offered by Mrs. Stewart. Brown Street
Hartley, Robert and Co Real Estate Agents. Corner of Watt and King street
Harris, Dr. John Father of Dr. May Harris
Harrison, Charles Edward Sub-inspector of Police at Newcastle
Hay, Archibald Upholsterer and Undertaker, Newcastle Furniture Warehouse, Hunter Street
Henderson, James Architect. King street
Henderson, William Built a house on the Hill in 1868
Hill, James Proprietor. Sea View House private Board and Residence
Hobbs, W. J. Family and Dispensing chemist.
Holt, Samuel Captain-commanding No. 3 Battery, Newcastle Vol. Artillery
Hollingshead, Joseph
Hookway, Mr Manufacturer of velocipedes. Scott street
Hooper, Charles Livery and Bait Stables. Opposite the Post Office, Watt Street
Hopes, John Publican at the Star Inn
Hopkinson, H. E Committee member Newcastle Protestant Hall Company King Street
Howden, John Engineer. Lake Macquarie Rd. Trustee for the Presbyterian Burial ground
Ingall, Robert Draper
Innes, Thomas Ship Chandler
Ireland, J In partnership with Stephen Durrant Lott
Jillings, Frederick Grocer and ironmonger. City Warehouse, Hunter street. Successor to A. Dickson
Jones, Lewis Publican at the Prince of Wales Inn. Also known as Turon Jones
Kidd, William In June commenced business as a Baker and Family Grocer, Commerce House, Bolton Street, two doors below Dr. Bowker's Surgery
Kittson, John James General drapery, clothing, boots etc. Sydney House, Hunter Street. Next door to Langham's Australian Hotel, crn. Woolfe and Hunter streets
Knaggs, Dr. Robert Corbett Wholesale and retail chemist, druggist, stationer, and bookseller
Knight, T. Wynn and Co Auctioneers and Shipping and Insurance Brokers. Scott street
Langley, John Douse In charge of the Bank of Australasia. Vice-President Newcastle Hospital
Lashmore, William Baker. Hunter street
Laughton, James Owner of the premises of the Railway Inn
Leading Lights
Lenthall, Albert Plumber, Painter etc., Market Square. At the back of G. W. Taylor's Drapery Establishment
Lloyd, George Alfred M.L.A. for Newcastle
Lockhead, William Kerr Auctioneer. Candidate in the Municipal Elections. City Ward
Logan, William R Sub-collector of Customs from April
Lott, Stephen Durrant Newcastle Steam Flour Mill and Store. Known in 1869 as Ireland and Lott. Cnr King and Perkin street. This photograph from the Ross and Pat Craig collection, University of Newcastle, taken from Perkin-st, shows Lott's Steam Mill in the background. Ireland's Bond Store was later built on the site
Ludlow, David Candidate for Alderman for the City Ward. King street
Luna, Maximillian Stock and Sharebroker. Kemp's Buildings, Hunter Street
Lynch, Francis Publican at the Bank Hotel at the A. A. Company's Bridge
Maddams, James Carpenter, Undertaker. Newcomen street
Maloney, P Tailor. Market Square
Market Borough Building Foundation stone laid in 1870
Martin, Henry Leasee of the Victoria Theatre in Market street
McCook, James Drapery and clothing establishment. Market House, Market Square
McDicken, Hugh Publisher of the Newcastle Chronicle. Bolton Street
McKay, David Baker. Blane street, Honeysuckle Point. Sold business to Henry Alderton in Feb.
McKenny, Robert Formerly of the Market Wharf Eating house. Moved business to Scott street, opposite the Steamer Wharf, two doors from Bolton street in July
McPhail, Thomas Ran an evening school for residents
McPherson, Mrs Boarding house proprietor. Market Square
Merewether, Edward C General Superintendent A. A. Company
Meiklejohn D. S Moved to the premises recently occupied by W. Arnott and adding a Gentlemen's Outfitting Department to his tailoring department. Opposite the Australian Hotel, Hunter Street. In November moved to premises adjoining the Shipwright's Arms opposite the New Market Hotel
Miller, David Grocer and Provision Merchant. Trustee, Presbyterian Burial Ground
Miller, William Iron and Brass Foundry. Darby Street
Mitchell, Charles Tailor. Business in the premises formerly occupied by William Charlton
Monley, Beaver and Colk Family grocers. New Market House, Market Square
Morgan, Cosby William Medical practitioner
Mullen and Gorrick Solicitors. Office next to Mr. Prevost's jewellery. Hunter street
Neve, Walter Hunter street Furniture warehouse
Newcastle Co-operative Steam Tug Co., C. F. Aldrich, secretary
Newcastle Gas and Coke Company John William Greaves appointed secretary
Newcastle Hospital Improvements made in 1870
Newcastle Steam Sawmills Colonial hardwood, Kaurie and American pine, doors, sashes, etc., Corner of King and Brown Streets. The sawmill that can be seen in the middle of this photo is probably the Newcastle Steam Sawmills
Newcastle Volunteer Artillery Charles Bolton, Captain Commanding
Newton, William Henry Stage manager at the Victoria Theatre in Market Square
Nihill, Patrick Pierce Tide-Surveyor and Sub-Collector of Customs
Ocean View House Accommodation offered by Mrs. Haslingden. Newcomen street. Opposite the City Hall
Olliffe, Joseph Benjamin Proprietor of the Criterion Hotel. Corner of Hunter and Bolton streets
Osborne Boarding House Newcomen street, facing the Industrial School. Mrs. Kay
Parnell, Edward Pastoralist. Retired
Pearce and Lipman Watchmakers and jewellers. Hunter street, Market Square
Peek, James Commenced a city and suburb parcel delivery service
Pendlebury, John Darby Street
Perkins, W Boot Warehouse, Hunter Street
Plunkett, Hugh Partnership of Plunkett and Kelly dissolved in August
Plunkett, J. J Moving business from Bolton street to Newcomen street. Two doors from Crystal Palace and opposite the Steam Packet Hotel.
Pocknee, John Baker. Re-opening the old established bakehouse of Mr. Priest in Bolton Street
Porter, Henry Carter, Hunter street
Prevost, Charles Jeweller. Hunter street
Prince Alfred Hall Watt street
Pritchard, Rev. E. Cook Wesleyan minister
Ranclaud, Charles B Magistrate. Coroner
Redman, George Soda water manufacturer
Rees, J Ship and General Smith. Miner's tools, wheelwright. Moved to premises opposite the Oddfellows Hall, Darby street
Rhodes, John Tailor and Clothier in Newcomen street, next door to the Crystal Palace
Robertson, Charles Agent for Sydney Marine Assurance Co., Scott street
Robinson, Thomas Veterinary Surgeon. Watt Street
Rodgers, Archibald Candidate for the office of Alderman for the Honeysuckle Ward
Rodgers, Archibald senior Agent for sale or purchase of steam engines. Blane street
Ross, Moyes and Donald Engineers, Millwrights, Boilermakers and Blacksmiths. Brown street, opposite the Bank of Australasia and at Scott street
Rouse, Henry House near the Obelisk, later known as Jesmond House
Rouse and Henderson Agents for Australasian Insurance company
Royal Hotel Blane Street
Russell, James Government contractor for steam cranes
Scholey, John Butcher
Scott, Helenus Police Magistrate
Scully, Walter Tailor. Hunter street. Business carried on by his wife after his death
Sea View House Accommodation offered by James Hill. Top of Watt street
Selwyn, Rev, Arthur E
Shaw Francis James and Co., Hall of Commerce, Scott street
Skillicorn, Phillip Butcher. New shop opposite Rouse's Hotel in April
Smithers Photographic gallery. Hunter street
Snedden, William Innkeeper Railway Hotel, Blane street. Insolvent in September
Solomons, Solomon Hawker
Solomon, Vindin and Co Solomon and Vindin from Maitland established a branch in Hunter Street Newcastle
Sparke, William A Elected Mayor for the year 1870
Spear and Bond Clothing and Drapery store. Central House, Hunter Street. Opposite Rouse's Hotel
Steam Packet Hotel Newcomen street
Stokes, Charles F. Candidate in the Municipal Elections. City Ward
Stokes, Henry J. P. Timber Merchant; Magistrate
Schumacher Hair dresser next to the Shipwrights Arms, Market street
Sweetland, Charles Trustee and manager of the Commercial Savings Bank
Taylor, G. W Drapers, Milliners, and Outfitters. Hunter street and Market Square
Teasdale, Mrs. Matron of Newcastle Hospital
Terminus Hotel Scott street. Mr. Milthorpe
Theatre Royal Formerly the old Assembly Rooms in Watt street. Re-decorated
Theobald, Robert Bishop School teacher. Church street
Thomas, C. H Wholesale and retail butcher. Corner of Hunter and Newcomen streets
Thurlow, Charles E Secretary of Newcastle Investment and Building Soc.,
Tighe, Atkinson Alfred Patrick
Timmoney, James Re-opened the London Tavern, Market Square, formerly known as the Shipwrights Arms
Upfold, Charles Great Northern Soap Works. Commenced manufacture of yellow family soap and candles
Von Paleske, Mr Teacher of Latin, French, German and music
Waddell, Daniel Commission Agent. Watt Street
Walker, Charles Tailor. Priest's Buildings, Bolton street near the Criterion Hotel
Wallace, Robert Barclay Flour merchant. Bolton street
Walmsley, Joseph Publican City Arms Hotel, Market Square
Watson, Samuel Storekeeper in Hunter Street
Watt, Alexander Albion Hotel, Watt Street
Watt, Robert Cunningham Formerly of the Albion Hotel
Weatherill, Captain William. F Owned timber yard. Secretary of the Marine Board
Webb, Henry Foreman of the Newcastle Fire Brigade
Wells, Dr. Augustus Surgery in Darby street in premises formerly occupation by Mr. Mackay, surveyor
Wesleyan Chapel Tyrrell street
Westaway, John Tailor and Woollen draper. Hunter street opposite Perkin Street
White, Ernest Augustus Agent for Mutual Life Association of Australasia
Whyte, William Henry General Agent, Newcastle
Winship, James B Colliery Manager A. A. Company
Wise, Mrs Opened Restaurant de Paris opposite the Police Court in Hunter Street. Meals 1 shilling
Wood Bros., Bonded Store. Ales, Sprits, Wines
Wood, John Brewer. Castlemaine Brewery. Residence Jesmond House was originally built for Henry Rouse. It was remodelled by John Wood and later extended by his son Robert Wood.
Wood, Joseph Brewer. Castlemaine Brewery. Woodlands residence in Church street

The two newspapers in Newcastle in 1870 were The Newcastle Chronicle and the Pilot. The information above about some of the residents, businesses and buildings has mostly been derived from The Newcastle Chronicle, available on Trove.

Hotels

Crystal Palace Hotel, Hunter and Newcomen streets. Publican James Anderson
Miner's Arms, Lake Macquarie Road. Publican John Barry junior
Great Northern Hotel, Publican Clement Oxley Clements
Old Oak Inn, Darby Street, Sidney Carey
The Market Wharf Inn, Market street, Robert Claxton
City Wine Vaults, Samuel Capman
Metropolitan Hotel, Philip Cloudy
Royal Hotel, Blane Street, Colin Christie
Royal Exchange Hotel, Hunter street, Patrick Cullen
Victorian Hotel, Blane Street, Eliza Catherine Collins
Yacht Club Hotel, Hunter street, James Hubbard
Carpenter's Arms, Blane street, Fitzarthur Hogue
Tattersall's Hotel, Blane street, Richard Hughes
Black Diamond, Maryland, Robert Hackworthy
Steam Packet Hotel, Hunter street, Edward Hill
Star Inn, John Hopes
White Horse Inn, Darby street, Jane H. Jones
Prince of Wales, Hunter and Bolton streets, Andrew Kirkaldy
Australian Hotel. Woolfe and Hunter streets, William John Langham
Ship Inn, Matthew Lister
Railway Hotel, Blane Street, Francis Lynch
Terminus Hotel, Scott street, Joseph Milthorpe
The Glebe Hotel, William Mills
Criterion Hotel, Hunter street, Olliffe, Joseph Benjamin
Duke of Edinburgh, Burwood, Henry Parker
Shipwright's Arms, John Peterson
Union Inn, Blane street, George Rodgers
Rouse's Hotel, Hunter street, Henry Rouse
The Railway Hotel, Blane street, John Snedden
Northumberland Hotel, Hunter street, Nathaniel Simon Smith
Commercial Hotel, Michael Thompson
Albion Hotel, Alexander Watt
Caledonian Hotel, Henry Williams
Post Office Hotel, Blane Street, Edward Wilson
Newmarket Hotel, Hunter Street, Robert Cunningham Watt
City Arms Hotel, Hunter and Market streets, Joseph Walmsley

New South Wales, Australia, Certificates for Publicans' Licences
State Archives NSW; Series: NRS 14411; Item: 7/1514; Reel: 1243