Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History

Colonial Events 1823

Treadmill introduced to Carter's Barracks by 1823

Responsibility for allocation of convict labour assumed by Colonial Secretary instead of Superintendent of Convicts

Gregory Blaxland awarded silver medal for first wine exported in bulk to London


Governor Brisbane visited Newcastle - His Excellency Sir Thomas Brisbane accompanied by Major Goulburn, Colonial Secretary, embarked on board His Majesty's brig Satellite on the forenoon of Thursday last, under the usual honorary salutes. Captain Currie presently got his vessel under weigh; and, in the course of the afternoon, the Satellite cleared the Heads. His Excellency will only remain a few days at Newcastle when, we understand he will return to Headquarters.

January 1

Distilling of spirits permitted

January 5

Death at Annandale of George Johnston, former Lieut-Colonel of 102nd regt.


Discovery of gold at Fish River near Bathurst by surveyor James McBrien


Vessel 'Calder' wrecked near Newcastle
William Worth's account of the disaster

Sea Grave Yard

February 27

Arrival of the convict ship Lord Sidmouth with female prisoners


Saxe Bannister appointed first Attorney General in New South Wales


Agricultural settlement established at Wellington Valley by Percy Simpson, soldiers and convicts


Road from Richmond to Wallis Plains opened for droving


Third and final report The State of Agriculture and Trade in the Colony of New South Wales issued by Commissioner Bigge

March 4

Arrival of the Surry with 157 male prisoners

March 11

Arrival of the convict ship Princess Royal with 154 male prisoners.

March 19

Death of convict lawyer George Crossley, Pitt St. Sydney aged 75 years


Ticket of leave convicts John Finnegan, Thomas Pamphlet and Richard Parsons shipwrecked on Moreton Island after being blown off course while sailing from Sydney to Illawarra

April 11

Arrival of the convict ship Brampton


Arrival of John Dunmore Lang in Sydney


Monaro district explored by Capt. Mark Currie and Major John Ovens


The Murrumbidgee river discovered by Captain Currie and Major Ovens


Pandora's Pass through the Liverpool Range found by botanist Allan Cunningham


James Mitchell appointed assistant surgeon at Sydney Hospital

June 18

Arrival of settler John Earl with wife and family on the Thalia

June 25

Arrival of convict ship Woodman with 94 female prisoners


Act of British Parliament passed which set up a Legislative council in NSW

July 30

Arrival of the convict ship Recovery


James McClymont and his wife Nancy, Rev. J.D. Lang, John Larnach, Beresford Hudson and Henry Hewitt arrived in Van Diemen's Land on board the ship Andromeda


Regular service between Sydney and Newcastle established by cutter Eclipse.

August 19

Arrival of Hunter Valley settlers John Eales and John Cobb in Hobart on board the Francis

August 26

Arrival of 3rd Regiment (Buffs). To replace 48th Regiment

August 26

Arrival of the convict ship Henry. Surgeon Superintendent Dr. Thomas Davis RN. Master - Captain Thatcher.


Arrival of the convict ship Ocean with male prisoners


Royal Veteran Company disbanded


Arrival of Hunter Valley settler Edward G. Cory passenger on the Allies


Discovery of a new route across the Blue Mountains from Richmond to Cox's River by Archibald Bell junior. This became known as the Bell's Line of Road. It was planned that the lately disbanded Veteran corp were to be settled along this line.

September 9

Arrival of convict ship Earl St. Vincent


John Oxley leaves Sydney on the cutter Mermaid to assess Port Curtis, Moreton Bay and Port Bowen

October 13

New Supreme Court of NSW constituted. Letters Patent sealed, known as Third Charter of Justice (Court opened May 1824)

October 16

The Sydney Gazette reported that all but 50 prisoners had been removed from the Newcastle penal settlement to Port Macquarie.

October 18

Arrival of the convict ship Mary . Captain Steel.


Vessel Mars 30 ton sloop built at Newcastle


Exploration of Brisbane River by John Oxley

December 16

Arrival of the convict ship Isabella

December 29

Arrival of the Medina convict ship. Captain Robert Brown. Surgeon John Rodmell.


Captain Henry Gillman appointed Magistrate at Newcastle